Theory defines, assumes, proposes, explains, and predicts what the research outcome is likely to prove (right or wrong). It is an integrated body of propositions, assumptions, and definitions that are related in explaining and predicting relationships between two or more variables. Theory could be any of the following: deductive inductive grounded axiomatic On the other hand, hypotheses are statements or assertions derived from theory that can be tested by scientific inquiry and that are capable of being refuted, and their tests may result in support or nonsupport for the theory from which they were derived. Prepare a 5-page paper that address the following questions: What are the key differences between the 4 identified types of research theories above? Is any one type of theory more valid than the others? Why or why not? What are the differences and similarities (if any) between theory and hypothesis? What are variables, and why are they important components of theoretical schemes? APA format. 5 pages. No plagerism. 5 sources cited througout the paper. Reference page and abstract.

Theory defines, assumes, proposes, explains, and predicts what the research outcome is likely to prove (right or wrong). It is an integrated body of propositions, assumptions, and definitions that are related in explaining and predicting relationships between two or more variables. Theory could be any of the following:

  • deductive
  • inductive
  • grounded
  • axiomatic

On the other hand, hypotheses are statements or assertions derived from theory that can be tested by scientific inquiry and that are capable of being refuted, and their tests may result in support or nonsupport for the theory from which they were derived.

Prepare a 5-page paper that address the following questions:

  • What are the key differences between the 4 identified types of research theories above?
  • Is any one type of theory more valid than the others? Why or why not?
  • What are the differences and similarities (if any) between theory and hypothesis?
  • What are variables, and why are they important components of theoretical schemes?

APA format. 5 pages.  No plagerism. 5 sources cited througout the paper. Reference page and abstract.

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What is the meaning of market equilibrium? Explain why everyone is not satisfied with a particular equilibrium point? (Ch. 3) 2. Discuss a benefit and a cost of raising the minimum wage to $10/hr. from its present $7.25/hr. (Ch.4) 3. It is said the nation’s legal system is a public good. Does the legal system have the key characteristics of a public good? Explain. (Ch. 5) 4. A product has a negative income elasticity. What does that measure tell us about the product? (Ch. 19) 5. Define the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility. What is the significance of this law? (Ch.20) 6. Which three costs are primarily used in economic decision making? (Ch.22)

What is the meaning of market equilibrium? Explain why everyone is not satisfied with a particular equilibrium point? (Ch. 3)

 

 

  1. Discuss a benefit and a cost of raising the minimum wage to $10/hr. from its present $7.25/hr. (Ch.4)

 

 

  1. It is said the nation’s legal system is a public good. Does the legal system have the key characteristics of a public good? Explain. (Ch. 5)

 

 

  1. A product has a negative income elasticity. What does that measure tell us about the product? (Ch. 19)

 

 

  1. Define the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility. What is the significance of this law? (Ch.20)

 

 

  1. Which three costs are primarily used in economic decision making? (Ch.22)

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Assignment 3: Preparing for the Informational Interview An informational interview is a recommended tool for exploring career options. This assignment is designed to prepare you for an informational interview of a professional in the field of psychology. You will conduct this informational interview during Module 2. Here, in Module 1, you will create a script, design a list of questions, and identify the person you hope to interview. You also need to schedule the interview. In M3 Assignment 2 LASA 1, you will submit a written account of the informational interview you conducted with the psychology professional. You will ask the interviewee to describe the educational and training steps (the career paths) he or she took to reach the current position. You will also ask the interviewee to describe, in some detail, the job responsibilities associated with the position. The interview must be at least thirty minutes long. Ideally, it should be conducted in person. If that is not feasible, a phone interview is adequate. For this assignment, do the following: Begin to prepare for this informational interview by identifying the professional you plan to interview. Ideally, the professional should be engaged in a career that you hope to pursue. (You may want to identify a second candidate in case your initial choice is unable to complete the interview with you.) This professional may work in your local area, but that is not necessary. If you cannot identify a professional easily, ask your friends and family if they know anyone who works in the field of psychology. You may also want to phone your local community mental health center or social services agency to ask for names and contact information of potential professionals you could interview. Contact your facilitator for guidance if you have difficulty in identifying someone. Provide the following identifying information about the individual you have selected: The name The job title (licensed psychologist, social worker, or case manager) The level of education (a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree) A description of job responsibilities or day-to-day tasks The type of license, if applicable The state of residence and practice The e-mail address or phone number Develop a list of at least fifteen questions to ask in your informational interview. Research possible questions to include using the Argosy University online library resources and the Internet. Refer to the “Job Resources” document to do an Internet search using the search terms “informational interview questions” in order to find suggested questions. Be sure to put them into your own words for the purpose of this assignment and to give credit to your source by using in-text citations and a reference list in APA format. Ask the interviewee about his or her work, academic preparation, and advice. In addition, include the interviewee’s answers to questions on the following topics: The experience, skills, and knowledge necessary for success in a career in psychology or in graduate school Relevant professional organizations His or her views on professional ethics and academic integrity The role of psychological research in his or her work His or her greatest challenges and rewards His or her reasons for choosing the field Develop a script (word-for-word written statement) that you will use during the warm-up (meet-and-greet) portion of the interview. What will you say to the interviewee when you meet him or her? What will you do? For example, will you shake the person’s hand and introduce yourself? Include small talk of a professional nature that will serve as an introduction and explanation of the purpose of the interview. Demonstrate in your script your ability to interact professionally and effectively in a professional environment. This assignment is preparatory work for the interview to be conducted later in this course. Do not conduct the interview for this assignment.

Assignment 3: Preparing for the Informational Interview

An informational interview is a recommended tool for exploring career options. This assignment is designed to prepare you for an informational interview of a professional in the field of psychology. You will conduct this informational interview during Module 2. Here, in Module 1, you will create a script, design a list of questions, and identify the person you hope to interview. You also need to schedule the interview.

In M3 Assignment 2 LASA 1, you will submit a written account of the informational interview you conducted with the psychology professional.

You will ask the interviewee to describe the educational and training steps (the career paths) he or she took to reach the current position. You will also ask the interviewee to describe, in some detail, the job responsibilities associated with the position. The interview must be at least thirty minutes long. Ideally, it should be conducted in person. If that is not feasible, a phone interview is adequate.

For this assignment, do the following:

  • Begin to prepare for this informational interview by identifying the professional you plan to interview. Ideally, the professional should be engaged in a career that you hope to pursue. (You may want to identify a second candidate in case your initial choice is unable to complete the interview with you.) This professional may work in your local area, but that is not necessary. If you cannot identify a professional easily, ask your friends and family if they know anyone who works in the field of psychology. You may also want to phone your local community mental health center or social services agency to ask for names and contact information of potential professionals you could interview. Contact your facilitator for guidance if you have difficulty in identifying someone.
  • Provide the following identifying information about the individual you have selected:
    • The name
    • The job title (licensed psychologist, social worker, or case manager)
    • The level of education (a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree)
    • A description of job responsibilities or day-to-day tasks
    • The type of license, if applicable
    • The state of residence and practice
    • The e-mail address or phone number
  • Develop a list of at least fifteen questions to ask in your informational interview. Research possible questions to include using the Argosy University online library resources and the Internet. Refer to the “Job Resources” document to do an Internet search using the search terms “informational interview questions” in order to find suggested questions. Be sure to put them into your own words for the purpose of this assignment and to give credit to your source by using in-text citations and a reference list in APA format.
  • Ask the interviewee about his or her work, academic preparation, and advice. In addition, include the interviewee’s answers to questions on the following topics:
    • The experience, skills, and knowledge necessary for success in a career in psychology or in graduate school
    • Relevant professional organizations
    • His or her views on professional ethics and academic integrity
    • The role of psychological research in his or her work
    • His or her greatest challenges and rewards
    • His or her reasons for choosing the field
  • Develop a script (word-for-word written statement) that you will use during the warm-up (meet-and-greet) portion of the interview. What will you say to the interviewee when you meet him or her? What will you do? For example, will you shake the person’s hand and introduce yourself? Include small talk of a professional nature that will serve as an introduction and explanation of the purpose of the interview. Demonstrate in your script your ability to interact professionally and effectively in a professional environment.
  • This assignment is preparatory work for the interview to be conducted later in this course. Do notconduct the interview for this assignment.

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Develop the framework for an ideal psychological support agency to respond to a national catastrophic event. Write a 1,400- to 2,450-word report that details the psychological support framework. Include the following in your report: The size of the agency Qualifications and skills of the employees Services provided The key components of the agency and its overarching mission How the agency can work with other organizations and what role the criminal justice system would play in this agency, if any. Format the report consistent with APA guidelines

Develop the framework for an ideal psychological support agency to respond to a national catastrophic event.

Write a 1,400- to 2,450-word report that details the psychological support framework.

Include the following in your report:

  • The size of the agency
  • Qualifications and skills of the employees
  • Services provided
  • The key components of the agency and its overarching mission
  • How the agency can work with other organizations and what role the criminal justice system would play in this agency, if any.

Format the report consistent with APA guidelines

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For this essay assignment, select one person or character who is important to you as you develop and grow as a human being. You may choose from these people or figures: a person who is living or dead, a literary or film character, a musical star, a film, drama, opera star, an historical figure (living or dead), a mythical figure, a spiritual figure (deity, prophet, person), a political figure. Choose a person you know or look up to, one whom you regard as a hero. Choose a person who has been influential in your life, someone you want to know more about, that you see as motivating or changing your way of thinking. Describe the person, then explain and analyze the importance he or she has had and continues to have in your life. I want this essay to be quite open in form so that you may choose anyone or any character who is important to you—and then write an analytical/expository essay with research about that person. The goal here is to learn more about yourself and who is important to your present and future life. With that in mind, choose at least one essay from The Norton Readerand then add at least two other sources to back up your thesis. You’ll have a total of at least three sources. You may include images and sub-titles as discussed in class to add to the depth of understanding in your essay. If you add images, be sure to include explanation of the image within the text. Sub-titles are meant to move your essay from one section to another; sub-titles act as transitions.

For this essay assignment, select one person or character who is important to you as you develop and grow as a human being. You may choose from these people or figures: a person who is living or dead, a literary or film character, a musical star, a film, drama, opera star, an historical figure (living or dead), a mythical figure, a spiritual figure (deity, prophet, person), a political figure.

 

Choose a person you know or look up to, one whom you regard as a hero. Choose a person who has been influential in your life, someone you want to know more about, that you see as motivating or changing your way of thinking. Describe the person, then explain and analyze the importance he or she has had and continues to have in your life.

 

I want this essay to be quite open in form so that you may choose anyone or any character who is important to you—and then write an analytical/expository essay with research about that person.

 

The goal here is to learn more about yourself and who is important to your present and future life.

 

With that in mind, choose at least one essay from The Norton Readerand then add at least two other sources to back up your thesis. You’ll have a total of at least three sources. You may include images and sub-titles as discussed in class to add to the depth of understanding in your essay. If you add images, be sure to include explanation of the image within the text. Sub-titles are meant to move your essay from one section to another; sub-titles act as transitions.

 

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1. Which of the following would NOT contribute to organizational effectiveness? a. excellent quality assurance procedures b. quality employee retention programs c. superior customer relations processes d. high prices for all goods and services 2. Considerable risks are involved when managers make decisions MOST LIKELY because the decisions ________. a. are made under uncertain conditions b. affect many people c. produce significant revenue d. are plagued with faulty judgements 3. In the managerial function of ________, managers encourage and motivate workers to work toward organizational goals. a. leading b. organizing c. planning d. controlling 4. Which of the following is the BEST description of diversity? a. different socio-economic backgrounds b. distinct ethical perspectives shared by many c. unified business objectives shared across multiple organizations d. highly skilled workers within a specific discipline 5. David Berry is the manager of a racially diverse department; however, no minorities are in supervisory positions. Therefore, he plans to actively recruit a minority supervisor. Because he is concerned that nonminority employees may oppose his decision, he is MOST LIKELY dealing with a ________. a. cultural challenge b. flexibility challenge c. fairness and justice challenge d. decision-making and performance challengeChallenge Examination 8 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 6. Rick Ward, human resources manager for May and Simmons Company, is developing a new benefits package that can be customized to provide care for unmarried life partners and workers caring for aged parents. Such a program would meet the ________ challenge of managing a diverse workforce. a. sensitivity b. flexibility c. fairness d. performance 7. A specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel, think, and act in a certain way is ________. a. a mood b. an ability c. a trait d. a behavior 8. Which of the following statements about the Big Five model of personality is TRUE? a. A person will always have one trait in which they rank highest. b. A person who ranks high on extraversion is likely to have many social interaction with others. c. A person who ranks high on agreeableness will rank low on conscientiousness. d. A person who ranks high in extraversion can rank high or low on any other trait. 9. Dana is an attorney. She is a gifted legal thinker and writer. When her partners bring her a legal problem that they will need to address in court she is almost always able to help them. However, she refuses to go into court herself. She explains that she simply does not feel comfortable speaking publicly. In which trait does Dana MOST LIKELY rank low? a. extraversion b. agreeableness c. conscientiousness d. openness to experience 10. High self-monitors would perform especially well in all of the following jobs EXCEPT ________. a. sales b. consulting c. spokesperson for a company d. devil’s advocate on a team Challenge Examination 9 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 11. ________ is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities. a. Self-monitoring b. Self-esteem c. Agreeableness d. Conscientiousness 12. Individuals with Type B personalities are MOST LIKELY to be ________. a. impatient b. driven c. competitive d. relaxed 13. ________ pertain to fairness, equity, and impartiality in decision-making. a. Utilitarian values b. Moral rights values c. Justice values d. Equal rights values 14. Laura is a manager at a retail store. She recently found out that the company is facing budget cuts. She was given the option to give all of her employees a 3% pay cut or lay off one employee. If she were using utilitarian values as her guide, which decision would she MOST LIKELY make? a. give all her employees a 3% pay-cut b. organize a protest c. quit the job so she does not have to make a decision d. lay off one employee 15. Passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ________. a. overrides the need for an organization to have a code of ethics b. diminishes protections for whistleblowers c. increases the reporting obligations of public companies d. instates regular auditing of public companies 16. How a worker feels about his or her job or organization represents the ________ of the worker’s attitude. a. behavioral component b. affective component c. cognitive component d. temperamental componentChallenge Examination 10 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 17. What statement BEST describes how situational factors may affect work mood? a. Only major events and conditions in one’s life affects work mood. b. Major and minor events and conditions affect one’s work mood. c. Situational factors do not affect work mood. d. Workplace incivility is the most important factor of work mood. 18. A manager notices a high amount of workplace incivility in the office. What strategy should the manager employ to BEST combat this? a. push up work deadlines b. reprimand rude employees c. encourage face-to-face conversations d. beautify the office 19. Individuals who are salient are often perceived in ________ inconspicuous members of a group. a. more neutral terms than b. more extreme terms than c. less extreme terms than d. the same terms as 20. A ________ is a systematic tendency to use, ignore, or interpret information about a target in a particular way that results in inaccurate perceptions. a. stereotype b. bias c. paradigm d. schema 21. Travis Randall often boasts of his ability to “size up” candidates interviewing for a new job in the first 30 seconds of the interview. He notes that the rest of the interview is spent collecting information to prove to his boss why his initial assessment is correct. This is an example of ________. a. stereotype b. bias c. primacy effect d. schemaChallenge Examination 11 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 22. Which of the following is NOT a bias that can have an effect on the attributions people make to their own behaviors or the behaviors of others? a. fundamental attribution error b. systematic observational bias c. actor-observer effect d. self-serving attributions 23. The ________ occurs when a manager thinks a subordinate’s behavior is due to some innate characteristic rather than to the situation. a. fundamental attribution error b. attention deficit syndrome c. actor-observer effect d. residual attribution error 24. Fundamental attribution errors MOST LIKELY occur when one ________. a. takes credit for successes and avoids blame for failures b. focuses on the actor and ignores the context c. is unaware of all of the individual factors that influence behavior d. attributes the behavior of others to external causes 25. When Jennifer Olsen started working at the law firm of Gould, Starnt, and Heffernen, she knew she was one of only a few women at the company who was balancing work and single motherhood. Determined to make her job a success, she worked long hours and sacrificed much time with her child for the good of the firm. Despite her efforts, her productivity, and her high rate of cases won, she knew there were other lawyers at her company who would always see her as a single mother first and a lawyer second. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the perceptions of Jennifer’s co-workers? a. Jennifer’s coworkers are basing their perceptions on stereotypes of single mothers. b. Jennifer’s coworkers are calling upon dysfunctional schemas as they perceive her. c. Jennifer’s coworkers’ perceptions of her are influenced by their knowledge of the fact that she is a single mother. d. Jennifer’s coworkers are using impression management in order to make themselves look better to the firm owners.Challenge Examination 12 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 26. Despite the fact that she walked into the interview chewing gum, which Dan found very unprofessional, he hired Margaret, in part, because, like him, she was born and raised in Ohio. On her first two or three job performance evaluations, Dan gave her high ratings, even though she was often late and missed many deadlines, because she made a good overall impression, especially compared to her very inadequate co-workers. Which of the following biases has Dan NOT allowed to cloud his judgement when it comes to Margaret? a. primacy effect b. contrast effect c. halo effect d. similar-to-me effect 27. The intended result of ________ is that once an undesired behavior ceases to be reinforced, its frequency will diminish until it no longer occurs. a. extinction b. behavior modification c. operational intervention d. shaping 28. According to operant conditioning theory, punishment ________ the probability of an undesired behavior. a. increases b. reduces c. negates d. eliminates 29. Negative reinforcement ________ the probability of a desired behavior. a. increases b. decreases c. eliminates d. has no effect on 30. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY to contribute to an employee’s level of creativity? a. internal locus of control b. intelligence c. self-esteem d. structureChallenge Examination 13 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 31. ________ is all of the information, skills, and expertise that an individual or a group has about the kind of work being performed. a. Autonomy b. Situational synergy c. Task-relevant knowledge d. Operational awareness 32. According to Peter Senge, which of the following is NOT a key activity central to a learning organization? a. encouraging low self-efficacy b. encouraging learning in groups and teams c. developing complex schemas d. communicating a shared vision for the organization 33. According to expectancy theory, valence, instrumentality, and expectancy must be ________ in order for an employee to be motivated to perform desired behaviors and to perform them at a high level. a. zero b. one c. high d. low 34. A factory worker really wants to move up in the corporation. He does his work, stays late, and is always looking for extra ways to help. He gets passed up for promotion after promotion. This will MOST LIKELY affect his ________. a. instrumentality b. valence c. expectancy d. equity 35. According to Stacy Adams, a ________ is simply another employee or group of employees perceived to be similar to oneself. a. substitute b. peer group c. referent d. doppelgangerChallenge Examination 14 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 36. Barbara Subaru is a secretary with a prestigious law firm who has observed that other secretaries with the firm receive better pay and have better working conditions than she does, even though she is more productive than they are. Equity theory would label this condition as ________. a. overpayment inequity b. referent inequity c. underpayment inequity d. imbalance inequity 37. According to equity theory, which of the following actions would an employee NOT take to restore equity? a. change the inputs for his own work b. change the inputs or outcomes of the referent c. change his perceptions of inputs and outcomes d. change the outputs of his own work 38. Gerald Simmons, a manager for Computers-R-Us, has been studying the equity theory of motivation. In an effort to be equitable, he plans to give the same percentage pay raise to each of his employees who work 40 hours a week. His plan ________. a. will eliminate previous inequities at the store b. demonstrates an understanding of the unique inputs of each employee c. considers that effort and behavior are likely to vary across workers d. may be a problem for those who feel underpaid 39. After employees are allowed to interact with customers or clients, and made responsible for managing these relationships and satisfying customers, which of the following core job dimensions would NOT increase? a. task identity b. skill variety c. autonomy d. feedback 40. The three individual differences identified by the job characteristics model that affect the relationships between the core dimensions and the psychological states and the relationships between the psychological states and the outcomes include ________. a. skill variety, task identify, and task significance b. growth-need strength, level of knowledge and skills, and satisfaction with the work context c. core dimensions, critical psychological states, and growth-need strengths d. experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of resultsChallenge Examination 15 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 41. According to the social information processing model, the social environment includes all of the following EXCEPT ________. a. other work group members b. supervisors c. books and documentaries d. employee’s own past behaviors 42. According to the social information processing model, workers’ past behaviors will MOST LIKELY affect ________. a. how they view their current jobs and work outcomes b. how they currently view past experiences c. their extrinsic motivation d. their future earnings potential 43. Tom Siegmund joined Chrismer and Park Co. as a security guard 30 years ago and after many years of hard work is now the company’s security manager. Tom has received several job offers from other companies over the years, but has always chosen to stay with Chrismer and Park. Jesse Black is also a 30-year veteran who works as a clerk at Chrismer and Park. Tom and Jesse see each other only at the annual veteran’s awards ceremony. This year, Jesse told Tom how unhappy he was in his work, but that he couldn’t do anything about it because he had never received a job offer from another company. According to social information processing theory, if all other things are equal, Tom’s job satisfaction is MOST LIKELY ________. a. the same as Jesse’s, as they both joined the company at the same time b. higher than Jesse’s, as Tom is a manager and Jesse is a clerk c. higher than Jesse’s, based on Tom’s past choices and personal sacrifices d. less than Jesse’s, because Tom has more responsibility 44. ________ advocates job simplification and job specialization, and its key goal is maximizing performance. a. Job enrichment b. Job enhancement c. Scientific management d. The job characteristics model 45. A doctor is asked to improve her relationship with her patients. She usually has little time to spend with them due to other obligations of her job. She is also expected to take on more patients because another doctor is taking an extended leave. She will most MOST LIKELY feel ________. a. role conflict b. underload c. overload d. role ambiguityChallenge Examination 16 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 46. ________ is the uncertainty that occurs when employees are not sure about what is expected of them and how they should perform their jobs. a. Role ambiguity b. Role conflict c. Role distress d. Role uncertainty 47. Sara Chan is unsure about what is expected of her and how she should perform her job. Therefore, she is experiencing ________. a. role ambiguity b. role conflict c. work-life balance stress d. underload 48. ________ relates to the steps people take to deal with and control their stressful feelings. a. Retroactive coping b. Problem-focused coping c. Solution-focused coping d. Emotion-focused coping 49. When ________ is successful, stressful feelings generated by threats and opportunities do not get out of hand. a. emotion-focused coping b. problem-focused coping c. solution-focused coping d. psycho-social coping 50. One technique for dealing with stress is to manage time better. This requires ________. a. coming in earlier and leaving later b. making and prioritizing lists of tasks c. setting time limits for interactions with your boss d. not attending meetings 51. Members of an organization form ________ when they have a common goal or objective that they are trying to achieve by uniting their efforts. a. interest groups b. friendship groups c. cross-functional teams d. self-managed work teamsChallenge Examination 17 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 52. The stages of group development include all of the following EXCEPT the ________ stage. a. norming b. adjourning c. forming d. conforming 53. The ________ stage of group development is characterized by considerable conflict. a. norming b. adjourning c. forming d. storming 54. Role ________ may be formally specified in a written job description or emerge informally over time as members work out methods for getting the job done. a. taking b. norming c. relationships d. negotiations 55. The performance of responsibilities that are associated with an assigned role is referred to as role ________. a. taking b. relating c. norming d. occupation 56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that rules can offer for controlling and managing the behavior and performance of group members? a. They help ensure the performance of behaviors beneficial to organizational effectiveness. b. They allow comparison of actual behaviors to behaviors specified by the rules. c. They eliminate the impact of group norms. d. They help newcomers learn the right way to perform their roles.Challenge Examination 18 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 57. A research team believed that an organization’s members would perform better when in a group. They studied how much effort was exerted in a tug of war contest when individuals were by themselves and when the individuals were on a team with others. They were MOST LIKELY to find that ________. a. individuals exerted the same amount of effort regardless of the situation b. individuals exerted less effort when they knew they were being watched c. individuals exerted more effort when in a group d. individual exerted less effort when in a group 58. Every day his group meets, Mike shows up late, texts on his phone, and doesn’t exert much effort. Kate is getting angry with Mike’s behavior. An example of the sucker effect would be if Kate ________. a. works harder to compensate for Mike b. resigns from the group c. reports Mike to the supervisor d. starts showing up late 59. James Thompson’s “model of group tasks” suggests that as task interdependence within a group ________ the degree and intensity of the interactions between group members who are required to perform the group’s task ________. a. increases; decrease b. increases; increase c. decreases; increase d. decreases; remains unchanged 60. ________ groups tend to promote cohesiveness. a. Large b. Dysfunctional c. Small d. Diverse 61. Groups tend to be MOST cohesive when members are ________. a. coherent b. homogeneous c. heterogeneous d. amalgamatedChallenge Examination 19 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 62. Competition between groups is LEAST LIKELY to promote organizational effectiveness when ________. a. one group competes against another to see which group can maintain the highest- quality standards b. one group becomes more concerned with beating another group than with achieving the organization’s goals c. groups that are doing especially well receive public recognition d. groups are given or adopt their own names 63. Sources of functional or divisional organizational power do NOT include ________. a. visibility b. centrality c. ability to control contingencies d. ability to control and generate resources 64. ________ is how vital or crucial the activities of a function or division are to the operation of the entire organization and the degree to which it is positioned to gain access to important information from other functions. a. Centrality b. Contingency c. Relevance d. Irreplaceability 65. Jim Bosley is a corporate manager for a large corporation. He has the authority to approve projects of the organization’s subsidiaries. He knows that his PRIMARY source of power is his ________. a. irreplaceability b. control over contingencies c. control over resources d. referent power 66. According to Pondy’s model, as the parties in the ________ conflict stage assert their views, the significance of the disputed issue is likely to be blown out of proportion. a. felt b. latent c. manifest d. perceived Challenge Examination 20 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 67. According to Pondy’s model, during the ________ conflict stage, one party decides how to react to or deal with the party that it sees as the source of the conflict and both parties try to hurt each other and thwart each other’s goals. a. latent b. felt c. perceived d. manifest 68. Every conflict episode leaves a conflict ________ that affects the way both parties perceive and respond to future episodes. a. outcome b. residue c. resolution d. aftermath 69. Grace is shopping for a computer when a salesman begins telling her why she should choose a certain model. He is using technical terms that Grace doesn’t understand, so Grace loses interest and leaves. In the future, the salesman should ________. a. change how he encodes the message b. change how he decodes the message c. use more jargon d. use non-verbal communication 70. The ________ provides paths of communication for delicate information, as well as for potential and actual crises. a. grapevine b. advice network c. trust network d. communication network 71. Encoding is MOST necessary to communication because it ________. a. eliminates information distortion b. entails modifying a message based on who is receiving it c. provides specialized terminology d. gives credibility to the message 72. Which of the following is enhanced by nonverbal communication? a. a text message b. an in-person meeting c. a telephone message d. a company’s annual reportChallenge Examination 21 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 73. Personally addressed written communication BEST helps to ________. a. provide nonverbal cues b. promote instantaneous feedback c. speed up communication d. encourage the receiver to pay attention to it 74. ________ allows a sender to communicate with the largest number of receivers simultaneously. a. Voicemail b. Instant messaging c. Personally addressed written communication d. Impersonal written communication 75. Organizational members often engage in ________; that is, they search for and choose acceptable responses to opportunities and problems. a. optimizing b. rationalizing c. satisficing d. sacrificing 76. The only doctor in a small town had a problem. He wanted to see all of the people who needed his care but he did not have enough time in the day to do so. He was especially worried that if he did not see certain patients, they would not be able to afford the doctor in the next town over. His problem is a(n) ________ one. a. optimal b. rational c. ethical d. financial 77. Heuristics are best described as ________. a. helpful and effective in all situations b. helpful in some situations and dangerous in others c. harmful and nonproductive in all situations d. harmful when used in nonprogrammed decision makingChallenge Examination 22 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 78. The fact that decisions made by groups are more extreme than decisions made by individuals is LEAST LIKELY associated with ________. a. the diffusion of responsibility occurs b. knowing that other group members support the same decision can cause group members to become more confident in their position c. as a group discusses alternatives, members of the group come up with persuasive arguments to support their favored alternative and the group’s confidence in the chosen alternative increases d. the diversity found in groups that cannot exist within single individuals 79. ________ can become dysfunctional when individual members become more concerned about winning the battle than in making a good decision. a. Individual decision-making b. Programmed decision-making c. Nonprogrammed decision-making d. Group decision-making 80. ________ is a spontaneous, participative, decision-making technique that groups use to generate a wide range of alternatives from which to make a decision. a. Producing b. Brainstorming c. Nominal group technique d. Delphi technique 81. A company uses mass production to manufacture toilet paper. The organization MOST LIKELY ________. a. has an organic structure b. has a mechanistic structure c. uses nonroutine technology d. carries high task analyzability 82. An example of ________ technology is the services rendered by a small group of auditors hired to evaluate the accuracy of a firm’s financial statements. a. mediated b. functional c. small-batch d. assembly-line Challenge Examination 23 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 83. ________ technology is based primarily on the use of automated machines that are programmed to perform the same operations time and time again. a. Process b. Functional c. Information d. Mass-production 84. The principle of the ________ chain of command states that an organization should operate with the fewest levels possible. a. minimum b. retractable c. streamlined d. hierarchical 85. Top management members do not want a tall organization, so they should ________. a. follow the principle of maximum chain of command b. stress the importance of low risk behaviors to employees c. hire more managers to supervise lower level managers d. offer training to employees to enable them to make more decisions 86. ________ is the ongoing communication among different people and functions that is necessary for an organization to achieve its goals. a. Instant messaging b. Mutual adjustment c. Divisional alignment d. Functional integration 87. A company manufactures parts for military aircrafts. The process requires accuracy and precision, and each job must be done in a certain way to ensure high quality. An instrumental value of this company would MOST LIKELY be ________. a. creativity b. excellence c. attention to detail d. risk taking 88. If an organization has a terminal value of ________, it will MOST LIKELY have an instrumental value of ________. a. excellence; profitability b. responsibility; creativity c. conservation; innovation d. morality; being honestChallenge Examination 24 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 89. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a terminal value of innovativeness? a. maintaining high standards b. working hard c. being creative d. playing it safe 90. An organization develops ________ to encourage members to adopt certain terminal and instrumental values and to behave in certain ways as they pursue their goals. a. specific norms b. regulatory frameworks c. generalized expectations d. organizational guidelines 91. Henry Ford said, “Learning together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.” Based on this, his organization MOST LIKELY had an instrumental value of ________. a. profitability b. innovation c. morality d. cooperation 92. Which of the following would an innovative company be MOST LIKELY to do that an inert company would not do? a. promote from within the company b. cut costs as low as possible c. abide by the most rigid ethical standards d. experiment with additional product lines 93. All of the following are common instrumental values in a company with an inert culture EXCEPT ________. a. laziness b. noncooperation c. output restriction d. entrepreneurshipChallenge Examination 25 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 94. According to Hofstede, ________ is the dimension of culture that focuses on the values that govern the relationship between individuals and groups. a. national ethos b. power distance c. individualism versus collectivism d. achievement versus nurturing orientation 95. In a country with low power distance, the government would MOST LIKELY view programs to equalize wealth amongst all citizens in a(n) _______ manner. a. indifferent b. unethical c. positive d. negative 96. An organization decided it wanted its members always to be looking for ways to make the organization better through efficiency or product improvement. Employees attended a meeting where the TQM strategy was explained. When the strategy was evaluated within a month, it was determined to be ineffective. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a reason for the poor evaluation? a. It was too drastic of a change. b. The managers did not empower the employees. c. The strategy can take much longer than one month to be effective. d. The employees were not behind the change. 97. A(n) ________ typically develops as an organization grows and is a principal source of inertia, especially in large organizations. a. matrix structure b. organic structure c. mechanistic structure d. hyperbolic structure 98. Organizational change is MOST LIKELY to be resisted ________. a. if it reinforces group norms b. by a highly cohesive group c. if the organizational culture is weak d. by political coalitions who currently lack powerChallenge Examination 26 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior 99. Individuals within an organization are LEAST LIKELY to resist change because of ________. a. uncertainty b. force of habit c. selective perception d. profit motive 100. A ________ is any activity that is vital to quickly delivering goods or services to customers or that promotes high quality or low cost. a. function b. business process c. production scheme d. operational method

1. Which of the following would NOT contribute to organizational effectiveness?

a. excellent quality assurance procedures

b. quality employee retention programs

c. superior customer relations processes

d. high prices for all goods and services

2. Considerable risks are involved when managers make decisions MOST LIKELY because the

decisions ________.

a. are made under uncertain conditions

b. affect many people

c. produce significant revenue

d. are plagued with faulty judgements

3. In the managerial function of ________, managers encourage and motivate workers to work

toward organizational goals.

a. leading

b. organizing

c. planning

d. controlling

4. Which of the following is the BEST description of diversity?

a. different socio-economic backgrounds

b. distinct ethical perspectives shared by many

c. unified business objectives shared across multiple organizations

d. highly skilled workers within a specific discipline

5. David Berry is the manager of a racially diverse department; however, no minorities are in

supervisory positions. Therefore, he plans to actively recruit a minority supervisor. Because he is

concerned that nonminority employees may oppose his decision, he is MOST LIKELY dealing

with a ________.

a. cultural challenge

b. flexibility challenge

c. fairness and justice challenge

d. decision-making and performance challengeChallenge Examination 8 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

6. Rick Ward, human resources manager for May and Simmons Company, is developing a new

benefits package that can be customized to provide care for unmarried life partners and

workers caring for aged parents. Such a program would meet the ________ challenge of

managing a diverse workforce.

a. sensitivity

b. flexibility

c. fairness

d. performance

7. A specific component of personality that describes particular tendencies a person has to feel,

think, and act in a certain way is ________.

a. a mood

b. an ability

c. a trait

d. a behavior

8. Which of the following statements about the Big Five model of personality is TRUE?

a. A person will always have one trait in which they rank highest.

b. A person who ranks high on extraversion is likely to have many social interaction with

others.

c. A person who ranks high on agreeableness will rank low on conscientiousness.

d. A person who ranks high in extraversion can rank high or low on any other trait.

9. Dana is an attorney. She is a gifted legal thinker and writer. When her partners bring her a legal

problem that they will need to address in court she is almost always able to help them.

However, she refuses to go into court herself. She explains that she simply does not feel

comfortable speaking publicly. In which trait does Dana MOST LIKELY rank low?

a. extraversion

b. agreeableness

c. conscientiousness

d. openness to experience

10. High self-monitors would perform especially well in all of the following jobs EXCEPT ________.

a. sales

b. consulting

c. spokesperson for a company

d. devil’s advocate on a team Challenge Examination 9 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

11. ________ is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities.

a. Self-monitoring

b. Self-esteem

c. Agreeableness

d. Conscientiousness

12. Individuals with Type B personalities are MOST LIKELY to be ________.

a. impatient

b. driven

c. competitive

d. relaxed

13. ________ pertain to fairness, equity, and impartiality in decision-making.

a. Utilitarian values

b. Moral rights values

c. Justice values

d. Equal rights values

14. Laura is a manager at a retail store. She recently found out that the company is facing

budget cuts. She was given the option to give all of her employees a 3% pay cut or lay off

one employee. If she were using utilitarian values as her guide, which decision would

she MOST LIKELY make?

a. give all her employees a 3% pay-cut

b. organize a protest

c. quit the job so she does not have to make a decision

d. lay off one employee

15. Passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ________.

a. overrides the need for an organization to have a code of ethics

b. diminishes protections for whistleblowers

c. increases the reporting obligations of public companies

d. instates regular auditing of public companies

16. How a worker feels about his or her job or organization represents the ________ of the worker’s

attitude.

a. behavioral component

b. affective component

c. cognitive component

d. temperamental componentChallenge Examination 10 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

17. What statement BEST describes how situational factors may affect work mood?

a. Only major events and conditions in one’s life affects work mood.

b. Major and minor events and conditions affect one’s work mood.

c. Situational factors do not affect work mood.

d. Workplace incivility is the most important factor of work mood.

18. A manager notices a high amount of workplace incivility in the office. What strategy should

the manager employ to BEST combat this?

a. push up work deadlines

b. reprimand rude employees

c. encourage face-to-face conversations

d. beautify the office

19. Individuals who are salient are often perceived in ________ inconspicuous members of a

group.

a. more neutral terms than

b. more extreme terms than

c. less extreme terms than

d. the same terms as

20. A ________ is a systematic tendency to use, ignore, or interpret information about a target in a

particular way that results in inaccurate perceptions.

a. stereotype

b. bias

c. paradigm

d. schema

21. Travis Randall often boasts of his ability to “size up” candidates interviewing for a new

job in the first 30 seconds of the interview. He notes that the rest of the interview is spent

collecting information to prove to his boss why his initial assessment is correct. This is an

example of ________.

a. stereotype

b. bias

c. primacy effect

d. schemaChallenge Examination 11 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

22. Which of the following is NOT a bias that can have an effect on the attributions people

make to their own behaviors or the behaviors of others?

a. fundamental attribution error

b. systematic observational bias

c. actor-observer effect

d. self-serving attributions

23. The ________ occurs when a manager thinks a subordinate’s behavior is due to some innate

characteristic rather than to the situation.

a. fundamental attribution error

b. attention deficit syndrome

c. actor-observer effect

d. residual attribution error

24. Fundamental attribution errors MOST LIKELY occur when one ________.

a. takes credit for successes and avoids blame for failures

b. focuses on the actor and ignores the context

c. is unaware of all of the individual factors that influence behavior

d. attributes the behavior of others to external causes

25. When Jennifer Olsen started working at the law firm of Gould, Starnt, and Heffernen, she

knew she was one of only a few women at the company who was balancing work and single

motherhood. Determined to make her job a success, she worked long hours and sacrificed

much time with her child for the good of the firm. Despite her efforts, her productivity, and

her high rate of cases won, she knew there were other lawyers at her company who would

always see her as a single mother first and a lawyer second. Which of the following is NOT

TRUE about the perceptions of Jennifer’s co-workers?

a. Jennifer’s coworkers are basing their perceptions on stereotypes of single mothers.

b. Jennifer’s coworkers are calling upon dysfunctional schemas as they perceive her.

c. Jennifer’s coworkers’ perceptions of her are influenced by their knowledge of the fact

that she is a single mother.

d. Jennifer’s coworkers are using impression management in order to make themselves

look better to the firm owners.Challenge Examination 12 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

26. Despite the fact that she walked into the interview chewing gum, which Dan found very

unprofessional, he hired Margaret, in part, because, like him, she was born and raised in Ohio.

On her first two or three job performance evaluations, Dan gave her high ratings, even though

she was often late and missed many deadlines, because she made a good overall impression,

especially compared to her very inadequate co-workers.

Which of the following biases has Dan NOT allowed to cloud his judgement when it comes to

Margaret?

a. primacy effect

b. contrast effect

c. halo effect

d. similar-to-me effect

27. The intended result of ________ is that once an undesired behavior ceases to be reinforced,

its frequency will diminish until it no longer occurs.

a. extinction

b. behavior modification

c. operational intervention

d. shaping

28. According to operant conditioning theory, punishment ________ the probability of an

undesired behavior.

a. increases

b. reduces

c. negates

d. eliminates

29. Negative reinforcement ________ the probability of a desired behavior.

a. increases

b. decreases

c. eliminates

d. has no effect on

30. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY to contribute to an employee’s level of creativity?

a. internal locus of control

b. intelligence

c. self-esteem

d. structureChallenge Examination 13 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

31. ________ is all of the information, skills, and expertise that an individual or a group has about

the kind of work being performed.

a. Autonomy

b. Situational synergy

c. Task-relevant knowledge

d. Operational awareness

32. According to Peter Senge, which of the following is NOT a key activity central to a learning

organization?

a. encouraging low self-efficacy

b. encouraging learning in groups and teams

c. developing complex schemas

d. communicating a shared vision for the organization

33. According to expectancy theory, valence, instrumentality, and expectancy must be ________ in

order for an employee to be motivated to perform desired behaviors and to perform them at

a high level.

a. zero

b. one

c. high

d. low

34. A factory worker really wants to move up in the corporation. He does his work, stays late, and

is always looking for extra ways to help. He gets passed up for promotion after promotion.

This will MOST LIKELY affect his ________.

a. instrumentality

b. valence

c. expectancy

d. equity

35. According to Stacy Adams, a ________ is simply another employee or group of employees

perceived to be similar to oneself.

a. substitute

b. peer group

c. referent

d. doppelgangerChallenge Examination 14 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

36. Barbara Subaru is a secretary with a prestigious law firm who has observed that other

secretaries with the firm receive better pay and have better working conditions than she

does, even though she is more productive than they are. Equity theory would label this

condition as ________.

a. overpayment inequity

b. referent inequity

c. underpayment inequity

d. imbalance inequity

37. According to equity theory, which of the following actions would an employee NOT take to

restore equity?

a. change the inputs for his own work

b. change the inputs or outcomes of the referent

c. change his perceptions of inputs and outcomes

d. change the outputs of his own work

38. Gerald Simmons, a manager for Computers-R-Us, has been studying the equity theory of

motivation. In an effort to be equitable, he plans to give the same percentage pay raise to

each of his employees who work 40 hours a week. His plan ________.

a. will eliminate previous inequities at the store

b. demonstrates an understanding of the unique inputs of each employee

c. considers that effort and behavior are likely to vary across workers

d. may be a problem for those who feel underpaid

39. After employees are allowed to interact with customers or clients, and made responsible

for managing these relationships and satisfying customers, which of the following core job

dimensions would NOT increase?

a. task identity

b. skill variety

c. autonomy

d. feedback

40. The three individual differences identified by the job characteristics model that affect the

relationships between the core dimensions and the psychological states and the relationships

between the psychological states and the outcomes include ________.

a. skill variety, task identify, and task significance

b. growth-need strength, level of knowledge and skills, and satisfaction with the work

context

c. core dimensions, critical psychological states, and growth-need strengths

d. experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes, and

knowledge of resultsChallenge Examination 15 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

41. According to the social information processing model, the social environment includes all of

the following EXCEPT ________.

a. other work group members

b. supervisors

c. books and documentaries

d. employee’s own past behaviors

42. According to the social information processing model, workers’ past behaviors will MOST

LIKELY affect ________.

a. how they view their current jobs and work outcomes

b. how they currently view past experiences

c. their extrinsic motivation

d. their future earnings potential

43. Tom Siegmund joined Chrismer and Park Co. as a security guard 30 years ago and after many

years of hard work is now the company’s security manager. Tom has received several job offers

from other companies over the years, but has always chosen to stay with Chrismer and Park.

Jesse Black is also a 30-year veteran who works as a clerk at Chrismer and Park. Tom and

Jesse see each other only at the annual veteran’s awards ceremony. This year, Jesse told Tom

how unhappy he was in his work, but that he couldn’t do anything about it because he had

never received a job offer from another company. According to social information processing

theory, if all other things are equal, Tom’s job satisfaction is MOST LIKELY ________.

a. the same as Jesse’s, as they both joined the company at the same time

b. higher than Jesse’s, as Tom is a manager and Jesse is a clerk

c. higher than Jesse’s, based on Tom’s past choices and personal sacrifices

d. less than Jesse’s, because Tom has more responsibility

44. ________ advocates job simplification and job specialization, and its key goal is maximizing

performance.

a. Job enrichment

b. Job enhancement

c. Scientific management

d. The job characteristics model

45. A doctor is asked to improve her relationship with her patients. She usually has little time to

spend with them due to other obligations of her job. She is also expected to take on more

patients because another doctor is taking an extended leave. She will most MOST LIKELY

feel ________.

a. role conflict

b. underload

c. overload

d. role ambiguityChallenge Examination 16 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

46. ________ is the uncertainty that occurs when employees are not sure about what is expected

of them and how they should perform their jobs.

a. Role ambiguity

b. Role conflict

c. Role distress

d. Role uncertainty

47. Sara Chan is unsure about what is expected of her and how she should perform her job.

Therefore, she is experiencing ________.

a. role ambiguity

b. role conflict

c. work-life balance stress

d. underload

48. ________ relates to the steps people take to deal with and control their stressful feelings.

a. Retroactive coping

b. Problem-focused coping

c. Solution-focused coping

d. Emotion-focused coping

49. When ________ is successful, stressful feelings generated by threats and opportunities do not

get out of hand.

a. emotion-focused coping

b. problem-focused coping

c. solution-focused coping

d. psycho-social coping

50. One technique for dealing with stress is to manage time better. This requires ________.

a. coming in earlier and leaving later

b. making and prioritizing lists of tasks

c. setting time limits for interactions with your boss

d. not attending meetings

51. Members of an organization form ________ when they have a common goal or objective that

they are trying to achieve by uniting their efforts.

a. interest groups

b. friendship groups

c. cross-functional teams

d. self-managed work teamsChallenge Examination 17 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

52. The stages of group development include all of the following EXCEPT the ________ stage.

a. norming

b. adjourning

c. forming

d. conforming

53. The ________ stage of group development is characterized by considerable conflict.

a. norming

b. adjourning

c. forming

d. storming

54. Role ________ may be formally specified in a written job description or emerge informally over

time as members work out methods for getting the job done.

a. taking

b. norming

c. relationships

d. negotiations

55. The performance of responsibilities that are associated with an assigned role is referred to as

role ________.

a. taking

b. relating

c. norming

d. occupation

56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that rules can offer for controlling and managing

the behavior and performance of group members?

a. They help ensure the performance of behaviors beneficial to organizational

effectiveness.

b. They allow comparison of actual behaviors to behaviors specified by the rules.

c. They eliminate the impact of group norms.

d. They help newcomers learn the right way to perform their roles.Challenge Examination 18 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

57. A research team believed that an organization’s members would perform better when in a

group. They studied how much effort was exerted in a tug of war contest when individuals

were by themselves and when the individuals were on a team with others. They were MOST

LIKELY to find that ________.

a. individuals exerted the same amount of effort regardless of the situation

b. individuals exerted less effort when they knew they were being watched

c. individuals exerted more effort when in a group

d. individual exerted less effort when in a group

58. Every day his group meets, Mike shows up late, texts on his phone, and doesn’t exert much

effort. Kate is getting angry with Mike’s behavior. An example of the sucker effect would be if

Kate ________.

a. works harder to compensate for Mike

b. resigns from the group

c. reports Mike to the supervisor

d. starts showing up late

59. James Thompson’s “model of group tasks” suggests that as task interdependence within a

group ________ the degree and intensity of the interactions between group members who are

required to perform the group’s task ________.

a. increases; decrease

b. increases; increase

c. decreases; increase

d. decreases; remains unchanged

60. ________ groups tend to promote cohesiveness.

a. Large

b. Dysfunctional

c. Small

d. Diverse

61. Groups tend to be MOST cohesive when members are ________.

a. coherent

b. homogeneous

c. heterogeneous

d. amalgamatedChallenge Examination 19 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

62. Competition between groups is LEAST LIKELY to promote organizational effectiveness when

________.

a. one group competes against another to see which group can maintain the highest-

quality standards

b. one group becomes more concerned with beating another group than with achieving

the organization’s goals

c. groups that are doing especially well receive public recognition

d. groups are given or adopt their own names

63. Sources of functional or divisional organizational power do NOT include ________.

a. visibility

b. centrality

c. ability to control contingencies

d. ability to control and generate resources

64. ________ is how vital or crucial the activities of a function or division are to the operation of

the entire organization and the degree to which it is positioned to gain access to important

information from other functions.

a. Centrality

b. Contingency

c. Relevance

d. Irreplaceability

65. Jim Bosley is a corporate manager for a large corporation. He has the authority to approve

projects of the organization’s subsidiaries. He knows that his PRIMARY source of power is his

________.

a. irreplaceability

b. control over contingencies

c. control over resources

d. referent power

66. According to Pondy’s model, as the parties in the ________ conflict stage assert their views,

the significance of the disputed issue is likely to be blown out of proportion.

a. felt

b. latent

c. manifest

d. perceived Challenge Examination 20 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

67. According to Pondy’s model, during the ________ conflict stage, one party decides how to

react to or deal with the party that it sees as the source of the conflict and both parties try to

hurt each other and thwart each other’s goals.

a. latent

b. felt

c. perceived

d. manifest

68. Every conflict episode leaves a conflict ________ that affects the way both parties perceive

and respond to future episodes.

a. outcome

b. residue

c. resolution

d. aftermath

69. Grace is shopping for a computer when a salesman begins telling her why she should choose a

certain model. He is using technical terms that Grace doesn’t understand, so Grace loses

interest and leaves. In the future, the salesman should ________.

a. change how he encodes the message

b. change how he decodes the message

c. use more jargon

d. use non-verbal communication

70. The ________ provides paths of communication for delicate information, as well as for

potential and actual crises.

a. grapevine

b. advice network

c. trust network

d. communication network

71. Encoding is MOST necessary to communication because it ________.

a. eliminates information distortion

b. entails modifying a message based on who is receiving it

c. provides specialized terminology

d. gives credibility to the message

72. Which of the following is enhanced by nonverbal communication?

a. a text message

b. an in-person meeting

c. a telephone message

d. a company’s annual reportChallenge Examination 21 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

73. Personally addressed written communication BEST helps to ________.

a. provide nonverbal cues

b. promote instantaneous feedback

c. speed up communication

d. encourage the receiver to pay attention to it

74. ________ allows a sender to communicate with the largest number of receivers

simultaneously.

a. Voicemail

b. Instant messaging

c. Personally addressed written communication

d. Impersonal written communication

75. Organizational members often engage in ________; that is, they search for and choose

acceptable responses to opportunities and problems.

a. optimizing

b. rationalizing

c. satisficing

d. sacrificing

76. The only doctor in a small town had a problem. He wanted to see all of the people who

needed his care but he did not have enough time in the day to do so. He was especially

worried that if he did not see certain patients, they would not be able to afford the doctor in

the next town over. His problem is a(n) ________ one.

a. optimal

b. rational

c. ethical

d. financial

77. Heuristics are best described as ________.

a. helpful and effective in all situations

b. helpful in some situations and dangerous in others

c. harmful and nonproductive in all situations

d. harmful when used in nonprogrammed decision makingChallenge Examination 22 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

78. The fact that decisions made by groups are more extreme than decisions made by individuals

is LEAST LIKELY associated with ________.

a. the diffusion of responsibility occurs

b. knowing that other group members support the same decision can cause group

members to become more confident in their position

c. as a group discusses alternatives, members of the group come up with persuasive

arguments to support their favored alternative and the group’s confidence in the chosen

alternative increases

d. the diversity found in groups that cannot exist within single individuals

79. ________ can become dysfunctional when individual members become more concerned about

winning the battle than in making a good decision.

a. Individual decision-making

b. Programmed decision-making

c. Nonprogrammed decision-making

d. Group decision-making

80. ________ is a spontaneous, participative, decision-making technique that groups use to

generate a wide range of alternatives from which to make a decision.

a. Producing

b. Brainstorming

c. Nominal group technique

d. Delphi technique

81. A company uses mass production to manufacture toilet paper. The organization MOST

LIKELY ________.

a. has an organic structure

b. has a mechanistic structure

c. uses nonroutine technology

d. carries high task analyzability

82. An example of ________ technology is the services rendered by a small group of auditors hired

to evaluate the accuracy of a firm’s financial statements.

a. mediated

b. functional

c. small-batch

d. assembly-line Challenge Examination 23 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

83. ________ technology is based primarily on the use of automated machines that are

programmed to perform the same operations time and time again.

a. Process

b. Functional

c. Information

d. Mass-production

84. The principle of the ________ chain of command states that an organization should operate

with the fewest levels possible.

a. minimum

b. retractable

c. streamlined

d. hierarchical

85. Top management members do not want a tall organization, so they should ________.

a. follow the principle of maximum chain of command

b. stress the importance of low risk behaviors to employees

c. hire more managers to supervise lower level managers

d. offer training to employees to enable them to make more decisions

86. ________ is the ongoing communication among different people and functions that is

necessary for an organization to achieve its goals.

a. Instant messaging

b. Mutual adjustment

c. Divisional alignment

d. Functional integration

87. A company manufactures parts for military aircrafts. The process requires accuracy and

precision, and each job must be done in a certain way to ensure high quality. An

instrumental value of this company would MOST LIKELY be ________.

a. creativity

b. excellence

c. attention to detail

d. risk taking

88. If an organization has a terminal value of ________, it will MOST LIKELY have an instrumental

value of ________.

a. excellence; profitability

b. responsibility; creativity

c. conservation; innovation

d. morality; being honestChallenge Examination 24 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

89. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a terminal value of innovativeness?

a. maintaining high standards

b. working hard

c. being creative

d. playing it safe

90. An organization develops ________ to encourage members to adopt certain terminal and

instrumental values and to behave in certain ways as they pursue their goals.

a. specific norms

b. regulatory frameworks

c. generalized expectations

d. organizational guidelines

91. Henry Ford said, “Learning together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working

together is success.” Based on this, his organization MOST LIKELY had an instrumental value

of ________.

a. profitability

b. innovation

c. morality

d. cooperation

92. Which of the following would an innovative company be MOST LIKELY to do that an inert

company would not do?

a. promote from within the company

b. cut costs as low as possible

c. abide by the most rigid ethical standards

d. experiment with additional product lines

93. All of the following are common instrumental values in a company with an inert culture

EXCEPT ________.

a. laziness

b. noncooperation

c. output restriction

d. entrepreneurshipChallenge Examination 25 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

94. According to Hofstede, ________ is the dimension of culture that focuses on the values

that govern the relationship between individuals and groups.

a. national ethos

b. power distance

c. individualism versus collectivism

d. achievement versus nurturing orientation

95. In a country with low power distance, the government would MOST LIKELY view programs to

equalize wealth amongst all citizens in a(n) _______ manner.

a. indifferent

b. unethical

c. positive

d. negative

96. An organization decided it wanted its members always to be looking for ways to make the

organization better through efficiency or product improvement. Employees attended a

meeting where the TQM strategy was explained. When the strategy was evaluated within a

month, it was determined to be ineffective. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY a reason

for the poor evaluation?

a. It was too drastic of a change.

b. The managers did not empower the employees.

c. The strategy can take much longer than one month to be effective.

d. The employees were not behind the change.

97. A(n) ________ typically develops as an organization grows and is a principal source of inertia,

especially in large organizations.

a. matrix structure

b. organic structure

c. mechanistic structure

d. hyperbolic structure

98. Organizational change is MOST LIKELY to be resisted ________.

a. if it reinforces group norms

b. by a highly cohesive group

c. if the organizational culture is weak

d. by political coalitions who currently lack powerChallenge Examination 26 BAM 515 Organizational Behavior

99. Individuals within an organization are LEAST LIKELY to resist change because of ________.

a. uncertainty

b. force of habit

c. selective perception

d. profit motive

100. A ________ is any activity that is vital to quickly delivering goods or services to customers or

that promotes high quality or low cost.

a. function

b. business process

c. production scheme

d. operational method

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Part 1: Room manager Strategy Review for Year 1 Quarter 1 1. Strategic Pricing for Year 1 Quarter 1 In this section, describe your overall pricing strategies for your rooms. For example, what is your price positioning in the market? What’s the rationale for this price positioning? In other words, describe the big picture of your overall pricing strategies for the hotel. 2. Differential Pricing for Year 1 Quarter 1 In this section, describe how you apply differential pricing for your room sales. For example, how is differential pricing applied to different market segments, to weekday/weekend rooms or to different distribution channels? What is the rationale behind such differential pricing strategies? What kinds of rate fences do you set up to apply differential pricing? What is the rationale behind such rate fence decisions? What are the rate adjustment criteria you set up for late bookings? What is the rationale behind such rate adjustment criteria? What are your inventory control criteria (room letting limits)? What is the rationale behind such inventory control criteria? two part need about 600 words, no plagarism.

Part 1:  Room manager Strategy Review for Year 1 Quarter 1

 

  1. Strategic Pricing for Year 1 Quarter 1

In this section, describe your overall pricing strategies for your rooms.  For example, what is your price positioning in the market?  What’s the rationale for this price positioning?  In other words, describe the big picture of your overall pricing strategies for the hotel.

 

  1. Differential Pricing for Year 1 Quarter 1

 

In this section, describe how you apply differential pricing for your room sales.  For example, how is differential pricing applied to different market segments, to weekday/weekend rooms or to different distribution channels?  What is the rationale behind such differential pricing strategies? What kinds of rate fences do you set up to apply differential pricing? What is the rationale behind such rate fence decisions?  What are the rate adjustment criteria you set up for late bookings?  What is the rationale behind such rate adjustment criteria?  What are your inventory control criteria (room letting limits)? What is the rationale behind such inventory control criteria?

 

two part need about 600 words, no plagarism.

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The use of E-Books has increased in recent years, especially with the advent of mobile E-Readers. A marketing research firm recently developed the following supply and demand schedules for E-books: Price/E-Book Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied $18 4000 10,000 16 5000 9500 14 6000 9000 12 7000 8500 10 8000 8000 9 9000 7500 8 10000 7000 7 11000 6500 6 12000 6000 5 13000 5500 4 14000 5000 2 15000 4500 Assignment Guidelines: Using Microsoft (MS) Excel, construct a graph showing supply and demand in the E-Book market based on the data above. (Save this file because you will re-work it later in the assignment.) When finished, copy and paste or import your graph into an MS Word document. (Tutorials for working with MS Excel and MS Word can be found through the Tutoring Services and Tutorials link at the top of the page.) In your MS Word document, below your imported graph, respond to the following: Explain how the Laws of Supply and Demand are illustrated in this graph. Describe the equilibrium price and quantity in this market. Assume that the government imposes a price floor of $12 in the E-Book market. Explain what would happen in this market. Assume that the price floor is removed and a price ceiling is imposed at $6. Explain what would happen in this market. Now, assume that the price of E-Readers (used with E-Books) drops from $60 by fifty percent. How would this change impact the demand for E-Books? Explain your answer. Then, reconstruct your original graph to show this change and place it in your MS Word document below your explanation. Remember, quotations, paraphrases, and ideas you get from books, articles, or other sources of information should be cited using APA style.

The use of E-Books has increased in recent years, especially with the advent of mobile E-Readers.  A marketing research firm recently developed the following supply and demand schedules for E-books:

Price/E-Book Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied
$18 4000 10,000
16 5000 9500
14 6000 9000
12 7000 8500
10 8000 8000
9 9000 7500
8 10000 7000
7 11000 6500
6 12000 6000
5 13000 5500
4 14000 5000
2 15000 4500

Assignment Guidelines:

Using Microsoft (MS) Excel, construct a graph showing supply and demand in the E-Book market based on the data above. (Save this file because you will re-work it later in the assignment.) When finished, copy and paste or import your graph into an MS Word document.

(Tutorials for working with MS Excel and MS Word can be found through the Tutoring Services and Tutorials link at the top of the page.)

In your MS Word document, below your imported graph, respond to the following:

  1. Explain how the Laws of Supply and Demand are illustrated in this graph.
  2. Describe the equilibrium price and quantity in this market.
  3. Assume that the government imposes a price floor of $12 in the E-Book market. Explain what would happen in this market.
  4. Assume that the price floor is removed and a price ceiling is imposed at $6. Explain what would happen in this market.
  5. Now, assume that the price of E-Readers (used with E-Books) drops from $60 by fifty percent. How would this change impact the demand for E-Books? Explain your answer. Then, reconstruct your original graph to show this change and place it in your MS Word document below your explanation.

 

Remember, quotations, paraphrases, and ideas you get from books, articles, or other sources of information should be cited using APA style.

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APA Foramt 1-2 pages due Saturday by 9m New York Time Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course. A proactive, targeted board recruitment process is crucial to creating a successful board of directors. Board members should have a passion for the mission of the organization and clearly understand and accept their important fiscal, legal, and moral responsibilities. In order to find and recruit such members, individuals or board nominating committees must use every tool or strategy available. To prepare for this assignment: Review your Discussion this week and reflect on the areas of knowledge, skills, and expertise you would require in a board member. Review the Web site, “Sample Recruitment Process and Procedures and Screening Interview.” Think about areas you might cover when face-to-face with a candidate for a board position. The assignment (1-2 pages): Briefly describe the organization you chose. Reflect on the needed knowledge, skills, and expertise of a potential board member you identified in the Discussion. Explain two strategies or tools you might use in your recruitment of this new board member. Be specific.

APA Foramt 1-2 pages due Saturday by 9m New York Time

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.

 

A proactive, targeted board recruitment process is crucial to creating a successful board of directors. Board members should have a passion for the mission of the organization and clearly understand and accept their important fiscal, legal, and moral responsibilities. In order to find and recruit such members, individuals or board nominating committees must use every tool or strategy available.

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review your Discussion this week and reflect on the areas of knowledge, skills, and expertise you would require in a board member.
  • Review the Web site, “Sample Recruitment Process and Procedures and Screening Interview.” Think about areas you might cover when face-to-face with a candidate for a board position.

The assignment (1-2 pages):

  • Briefly describe the organization you chose.
  • Reflect on the needed knowledge, skills, and expertise of a potential board member you identified in the Discussion.
  • Explain two strategies or tools you might use in your recruitment of this new board member. Be specific.

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An NPO’s strategic plan delineates the organization’s mission and goals. This information provides the foundations for the policies and procedures a board of directors will need to create. It is important, then, to appoint board members who are in alignment with the mission and goals of the organization, and who will be able to craft policies and procedures to support these goals. Creating the most effective board of directors for an NPO should be done through a targeted approach based on the specific needs of the organization. In this Application, you will design an ideal board of directors that can successfully support the mission and goals of your final project organization. To prepare for this assignment: Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on how to build an effective board of directors. Consider the importance of identifying and recruiting board members who are aligned with the mission and goals of the organization. Think about the mission and goals of the NPO you are creating for your Final Project. Consider the different functions of board members that would support the mission and goals. Reflect on the types of people (i.e., backgrounds, strengths, expertise, etc.) who would most facilitate the functioning of your NPO. The assignment: (1–2 pages) Design the ideal board of directors for the NPO you are creating for your Final Project. That is, state the number of board members you would recruit for the ideal board for your NPO, and then explain the role or function each would assume as a board member. Describe each member in detail, including his/her background, strengths, and specifics that he/she would contribute to the board and thus to the organization. Justify each of your selections based on the purpose, roles, and responsibilities of board members.

An NPO’s strategic plan delineates the organization’s mission and goals. This information provides the foundations for the policies and procedures a board of directors will need to create. It is important, then, to appoint board members who are in alignment with the mission and goals of the organization, and who will be able to craft policies and procedures to support these goals. Creating the most effective board of directors for an NPO should be done through a targeted approach based on the specific needs of the organization.

In this Application, you will design an ideal board of directors that can successfully support the mission and goals of your final project organization.

 

To prepare for this assignment:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on how to build an effective board of directors.
  • Consider the importance of identifying and recruiting board members who are aligned with the mission and goals of the organization.
  • Think about the mission and goals of the NPO you are creating for your Final Project.
  • Consider the different functions of board members that would support the mission and goals.
  • Reflect on the types of people (i.e., backgrounds, strengths, expertise, etc.) who would most facilitate the functioning of your NPO.

The assignment: (1–2 pages)

  • Design the ideal board of directors for the NPO you are creating for your Final Project. That is, state the number of board members you would recruit for the ideal board for your NPO, and then explain the role or function each would assume as a board member.
  • Describe each member in detail, including his/her background, strengths, and specifics that he/she would contribute to the board and thus to the organization.
  • Justify each of your selections based on the purpose, roles, and responsibilities of board members.

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