Did Native Americans embody freedom
1. Although some European observers believed Native Americans embodied freedom, most reached the conclusion that Native Americans did not know what freedom was because they were “too free” on what basis did they make this claim?
2. On the eve of colonization, European concepts of freedom bore little resemblance to our modern concepts of personal liberties. Explain how the ideals of “Christian liberty”, obedience to authority and adhering to one’s social rank shaped the fifteenth- century ideal freedom.
3. Spanish and French settlers both claimed to be freeing Native Americans by bringing them advanced civilization and Catholicism. Justify this claim with specific examples as either of these European powers would have at the time.
4. How did pope’s revolt in 1680 immediately restore freedom to the pueblo Indians and what happened once the Spanish returned?
5. Both at home and in the new world, the Dutch enjoyed greater freedom than other European citizens. Explore this comparison using specific examples.
1. With many degrees of freedom coexisting in seventeen-century north American, a person might go from having no right to possessing many in a lifetime. Use examples to demonstrate this fact.
2. To provide full freedom for higher social orders in both England and English North America, lower social orders had to do without. Explain how and why this was so.
3. How did the concepts and goals of freedom differ for the following settlers: newcomers to john smith Jamestown; a puritan family in 1640s Massachusetts; and catholic landowner in 11640s Maryland?
4. Explain how the puritans use their concept of moral liberty to justify their actions against others in New York world, and those remaining in England might see these justifications as hypocritical.
5. Review the debates over the true meaning of freedom and English following the English civil war. What would you say was the lasting significance of these debates?
1. English settles insisted that true freedom for Native Americans meant they must abandon their traditions and accept English ways. Examine the changes to Native American life by the mid-eighteenth century, and discuss whether Native American freedom increased for others.
2. Freedom and lack of freedom existed side-by-side in the English colonies. Using examples from Pennsylvania and elsewhere, demonstrate how greater freedom for dome colonist in one area meant less freedom for others.
3. British citizens connected freedom and liberty to land ownership and not having to work for wages. Why did they make these conceptions and what were the consequences for social structure?
4. Some historians have argued that the freedoms and prosperity of the British Empire were all based on slavery. Examine this statement using examples.
5. Many British settlers in North America believed it was the best poor man’s country, and that they were the freest people in the world. What factors would lead to such a claim?
1. Although many British colonists claimed theirs was an empire of freedom, most African-Americans instead have viewed Spain as beacon of freedom, and what events in the eighteenth century demonstrated this?
2. The eighteenth century saw the simultaneous expansion of both freedom and slavery in North American colonies. Explain the connections between these two contradictory forces.
3. Explain how the ideals of republican’s liberty and liberal freedom became the widespread rallying cries of people from all social classes in the British Empire.
4. Today we treasure freedom of expression in all its forms, and freedom considered dangerous in the eighteen century and thus not guaranteed to everyone in the British Empire?
1. The gran ideas of liberty and freedom are contagious and often spread rapidly. Why were many colonial elites, who held one definition of liberty, alarmed by the actions and claims of averages citizens in the decade before independence?
2. Almost every colonist-even those like Thomas Hutchinson who later became loyalist- opposed the stamp act. Identity the many ways of colonist identifies the many ways colonist identified the stamp act as a threat to their freedoms.
3. Explain how each of the following could be viewed as threat to freedom by different groups of colonist: the growing debt of Virginia planters, a lack of courts in Carolina backcountry, imports of British manufactured goods, and imports of low-priced tea.
4. Why did some Americans view freedom as dependent upon their remaining loyal to British part of the empire?
5. Many historians say that the declaration of independence is the most important document in U.S history. How did it permanently change the meaning of American freedom? What concepts make it so appealing to people of all social classes, across time and globe?