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DNA binding domain 4. The four receptor super families fall into categories on the basis of structure. Which superfamily has a DNA binding domain as a structural feature? a. Ligand gated ion channel b. G-protein coupled c. Kinase linked d. Nuclear 4. Enzymes involved in Phase I reactions include: (i)__________________________________________________________________________ (ii)_________________________________________________________________________ (iii)_________________________________________________________________________ (iv)_______________________________________________________________________ You can use either the notes or the simulation at http://www.icp.org.nz/icp_t3.html for the following question 7. If a drug has one the following Volume of Distribution, which body compartment(s) would you expect it to be distributed into? Vd=5L______________________________________________________________________ Vd=15L_____________________________________________________________________ Vd=150L____________________________________________________________________ You can use either the notes or the simulation at http://www.icp.org.nz/icp_t2.html for the following question 8. A patient is administered a drug which is predominantly cleared through the liver, if the patient has their liver function reduced by 50%, what kind of adjustment (if any) to the drug dosage must be made to ensure the drug reaches a therapeutic concentration in their body? ________________________________________________ 1. What are the physiological consequences of activating the main two components of the autonomic nervous system on a) gastrointestinal motility & secretion b) heart function and c) airway function d) lung e) adrenal medulla? In each case include the target organ transmitters involved and the types of receptors involved. i) Parasympathetic system: ii) Sympathetic system: 2. Using a representative diagram, illustrate the anatomical differences between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibres in terms of their origin, relays and termination to a) blood vessels, b) heart and c) adrenal medulla. 3. What are the main neurotransmitters & receptor types involved in neurotransmission at the following sites? Use your textbook to help you answer this question. Type of Nerve Terminal NeurotransmitterReceptors Involved preganglionic sympathetic fibres preganglionic parasympathetic fibres postganglionic sympathetic fibres at vascular smooth muscle postganglionic parasympathetic fibres at cardiac muscle 4. Outline the main differences between the metabolism of acetylcholine and noradrenaline at the nerve terminal. Name one drug that can influence the metabolism of each and how it works. 1. Using a diagram, outline the principle differences between cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition by non selective and COX-2 selective drugs. [3 marks] 1. Describe how gastric acid is produced and discuss the mechanisms of action and major side effects of THREE major classes of drugs used to treat gastric/duodenal ulcers. [10 marks] Answer: Gastric juice is produced in the stomach. The juice is produced from parietal and peptic cells and consists of pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid. The three major classes of drugs used to treat gastric ulcers encompass prostaglandin analogues, proton pump inhibitors, as well as, H2 receptor antagonists. Some of the drugs used to treat ulcers include Omeprazole, cimetidine, and sulfonamide. Where is the mechanism of action?? 1. What is the main challenge to modern antibiotic therapy? Give some examples of the origin of this challenge and how it might be overcome. 3. With a brief sketch illustrate the different parts of the HIV virus life cycle which can he interrupted by drug therapy. 5. What mode of therapy is common to anti-viral therapy and anti-cancer therapy? 6. Why are microtubules important in cancer? Illustrate this with the mode of action of one anticancer drug? 7. What is the new therapy for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Explain how this represents a new approach to cancer therapy. 8. There are multiple steps in the bacterial translation process that can be attacked by antibiotics, gives 4 examples and an antibiotic that works at each step. 1. Which of the following statements about gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is CORRECT? a. it is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system b. it is formed from aspartate by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase c. it activates GABAB receptors which are found mainly at postsynaptic site d. it activates GABAA receptors which leads to Cl- influx 2. Which of the following statements about dopamine is CORRECT? a. it is present at high concentrations within the regions of the limbic system b. its reduction within the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with schizophernia c. it can only have excitatory effect within the central nervous system d. its hyperactivity in the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with Parkinson’s disease 3. Which of the following statements about drugs that act as selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) is CORRECT? a) they increase 5-HT receptor activity in the central nervous system b) their pharmacological action is mainly restricted within the periphery c) they are used to treat patients suffering from Schizophrenia d) they decrease the presynaptic cellular levels of dopamine Part B: Short Answer Questions 1. Describe briefly the mechanisms of action and major side effects of TWO Drug classes that affect central 5-hydroxytryptamine systems. (3 marks) 2. Describe the pharmacodynamic targets for amphetamines and their adverse effects. (3 marks) 1. Describe the use of drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia, focusing on the mechanisms of action and main side effects of TWO major classes of antipsychotic drugs. (10 marks) Q3. Compare and contrast combinatorial chemistry and rational drug design Q5. With a quick sketch, illustrate the success rate of potential drugs at each step of the drug discovery process Q6. With a quick sketch illustrate the proportion of modern pharmaceuticals that come from natural or synthetic routes. Q8 We often use a natural product as a basis from a pharmaceutical therapy, why is this? Give one illustration of a natural compound that has been modified to give a therapeutic (and why it was modified) 1. G-protein coupled receptors depend on 2ndmessengers to elicit their effects on cell function. Name 3 of these messengers and explain their role in this process. [3 marks] 10. Describe briefly why we use drugs that affect brain 5-HT levels or 5-HT receptors to treat major brain disorders. [3 marks] Answer: Because there are various behavioral and physiological functions associated with 5-HT pathways which include hallucinations, mood, feeding behavior, as well as, sleep. Did you find this answer from lecture note? It seems not answing the question. Can you please re-do it? Cheers 12. Using brief notes compare and contrast the mechanisms of resistance to anticancer drugs and antiviral drugs. [3 marks] 13. Compare and contrast the use of complementary therapies by asthmatics and people with depression. [3 marks] Answer: Both adults and children suffering from depression or asthma use complementary therapies. Herbal products are used in both cases. The percent of children with Asthma who use complementary therapies is higher when compared with their counterparts who use complementary therapies. In addition, vitamin C is used by both patients. Same problem to question 10, did you find out from my lecture notes? Can you please re- do? Thanks 3. Some anti-viral drugs and some anti-cancer drugs share a common mechanism. Explain what this mechanism is, why it is important to both viral and cancer chemotherapy and give one example of such a therapy. If possible, also name a drug that has been used as both anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. [10marks] 4. Aspirin is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) for many different pain conditions as well as fever. Aspirin can also cause duodenal or gastric ulcer, platelet disorders and renal function impairment. Explain why these side effects occur and suggest an alternative NSAID with reduced side effects. [10marks] 5. With a simple illustration, draw the autonomic innervation which projects to the adrenal medulla and heart. Include relevant transmitters and receptors in your answer. [6 marks] 10. Compare and contrast the use of complementary therapies by pregnant women and healthy people. [3 marks] Answer: Majority of people who uses complementary therapies are women who have at least tertiary education…whether healthy or pregnant. However, pregnant women choose complementary therapies for pregnant related reasons while healthy individuals choose complementary therapies for health reasons. Majority of people who use complementary therapies does so without knowledge of their GP or specialist. Same problem, did you find out from my lecture notes? Can you please re- do? Thanks 12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are used for many different pain Conditions, as well as, fever. Some of these drugs cause platelet disorders and gastric ulcer. Explain why these side effects occur. [3 marks] 3. Describe the pharmacodynamic effects of amphetamines, their mechanisms of action, and explain how this relates to their chemical structure. [10marks] Answer: Aphetamine is either heated and smoked, injected, snorted or taken orally. It increases confidence, increases vigilance, leads to loss of appetite and increased energy. Long term use of amphetamine can lead to severe dental problems, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, violent behavior, extreme weight loss, as well as, mood disturbances. Missed out of their mechanisms of action, and explain how this relates to their chemical structure 4. Describe why drug effects within the central nervous system are far more complex than on the autonomic nervous system by focussing on antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Explain mechanisms of action and main side effects of these drugs. [10marks] 5. Compare and contrast rational drug design and combinatorial chemistry as methods of drug discovery. [10marks] 6. Production of gastric acid is finely regulated both by neurons and by hormones. Describe effects of drugs that act as an agonist at histamine (H2) and muscarinic (M1) receptors on gastric acid production. Can these drugs be used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers? Explain your answer. [10marks] 2010 5. Describe the dynamics of acetylcholine production, storage, release and inactivation at the synapse. Use a diagram to assist your answer if you wish. Also, name one type of drug that can prevent acetylcholine mediating its effect there. [3 marks] 2. What major therapeutic challenge is common to both anti-bacterial and anti-viral therapy? [10marks] Answer: Both are faced with the problem of the emergence of anti-bacterial and anti-viral resistances. In particular, anti-viral therapy has not been effective over the last few years due to emergence of anti-viral drug resistance. In addition, high costs associated with some antiviral therapies coupled with lack of effectiveness in treating diseases have made researchers to search and effective antiviral compounds. On the other hand, some anti-bacterial drugs are expensive, less effective and unreliable. The emergence of antibacterial drug resistance has not helped the matter. Please only talk about their common therapeutic challenge. Noted this is a 10 marks question thank you 3. A pharmaceutical company has developed a new drug “Whimsolidine”. Following in vitro and in vivo experiments they have the following information about the drug’s action: (i) organ bath: drug at low concentrations causes a significant contraction response. (ii) autoradiography: drug binds to receptors in the brain, stomach, liver, and kidney. (iii) dosing in rats: drug response following oral administration was observed on day 1 but diminished on day 2-5 of dosing and most of the drug was excreted in the urine as metabolites. (iv) dosing in rats with liver disease: drug accumulated in the plasma causing severe toxicity after heightened response. Referring to the above information, discuss the pharmacological properties of the drug including: type of drug (agonist/antagonist), site of action, pharmacokinetics (absorption and clearance organ), changes in dosing required with continued administration, and patient groups who should not take the drug due to toxicity. [10marks]

DNA binding domain

4. The four receptor super families fall into categories on the basis of structure. Which
superfamily has a DNA binding domain as a structural feature?
a. Ligand gated ion channel
b. G-protein coupled
c. Kinase linked
d. Nuclear

4. Enzymes involved in Phase I reactions include:
(i)__________________________________________________________________________
(ii)_________________________________________________________________________
(iii)_________________________________________________________________________
(iv)_______________________________________________________________________

You can use either the notes or the simulation at http://www.icp.org.nz/icp_t3.html for the
following question

7. If a drug has one the following Volume of Distribution, which body compartment(s) would you expect it to be distributed into?
Vd=5L______________________________________________________________________
Vd=15L_____________________________________________________________________
Vd=150L____________________________________________________________________

You can use either the notes or the simulation at http://www.icp.org.nz/icp_t2.html for the
following question

8. A patient is administered a drug which is predominantly cleared through the liver, if the patient has their liver function reduced by 50%, what kind of adjustment (if any) to the drug dosage must be made to ensure the drug reaches a therapeutic concentration in their body?

________________________________________________

1. What are the physiological consequences of activating the main two components of the
autonomic nervous system on a) gastrointestinal motility & secretion b) heart function and
c) airway function d) lung e) adrenal medulla? In each case include the target organ transmitters involved and the types of receptors involved.
i) Parasympathetic system:

 

ii) Sympathetic system:

 

2. Using a representative diagram, illustrate the anatomical differences between
parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibres in terms of their origin, relays and
termination to a) blood vessels, b) heart and c) adrenal medulla.

 

 

3. What are the main neurotransmitters & receptor types involved in neurotransmission at
the following sites? Use your textbook to help you answer this question.

Type of Nerve Terminal NeurotransmitterReceptors Involved
preganglionic sympathetic fibres

preganglionic parasympathetic
fibres

postganglionic sympathetic fibres
at vascular smooth muscle

postganglionic parasympathetic
fibres at cardiac muscle

4. Outline the main differences between the metabolism of acetylcholine and noradrenaline
at the nerve terminal. Name one drug that can influence the metabolism of each and how
it works.

1. Using a diagram, outline the principle differences between cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibition by
non selective and COX-2 selective drugs. [3 marks]

 

1. Describe how gastric acid is produced and discuss the mechanisms of action and major side
effects of THREE major classes of drugs used to treat gastric/duodenal ulcers. [10 marks]
Answer: Gastric juice is produced in the stomach. The juice is produced from parietal and peptic cells and consists of pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid. The three major classes of drugs used to treat gastric ulcers encompass prostaglandin analogues, proton pump inhibitors, as well as, H2 receptor antagonists. Some of the drugs used to treat ulcers include Omeprazole, cimetidine, and sulfonamide.

Where is the mechanism of action??

1. What is the main challenge to modern antibiotic therapy? Give some examples of the origin of
this challenge and how it might be overcome.

3. With a brief sketch illustrate the different parts of the HIV virus life cycle which can he
interrupted by drug therapy.

5. What mode of therapy is common to anti-viral therapy and anti-cancer therapy?
6. Why are microtubules important in cancer? Illustrate this with the mode of action of one
anticancer drug?

 

7. What is the new therapy for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Explain how this represents a new
approach to cancer therapy.

8. There are multiple steps in the bacterial translation process that can be attacked by antibiotics,
gives 4 examples and an antibiotic that works at each step.

1. Which of the following statements about gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is CORRECT?
a. it is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system
b. it is formed from aspartate by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase
c. it activates GABAB receptors which are found mainly at postsynaptic site
d. it activates GABAA receptors which leads to Cl- influx

2. Which of the following statements about dopamine is CORRECT?
a. it is present at high concentrations within the regions of the limbic system
b. its reduction within the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with schizophernia
c. it can only have excitatory effect within the central nervous system
d. its hyperactivity in the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with Parkinson’s disease

3. Which of the following statements about drugs that act as selective inhibitors of monoamine
oxidase type A (MAO-A) is CORRECT?

a) they increase 5-HT receptor activity in the central nervous system
b) their pharmacological action is mainly restricted within the periphery
c) they are used to treat patients suffering from Schizophrenia
d) they decrease the presynaptic cellular levels of dopamine

 

Part B: Short Answer Questions
1. Describe briefly the mechanisms of action and major side effects of TWO Drug classes that affect
central 5-hydroxytryptamine systems. (3 marks)

2. Describe the pharmacodynamic targets for amphetamines and their adverse effects. (3 marks)

1. Describe the use of drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia, focusing on the mechanisms of action and main side effects of TWO major classes of antipsychotic drugs. (10 marks)
Q3. Compare and contrast combinatorial chemistry and rational drug design

Q5. With a quick sketch, illustrate the success rate of potential drugs at each
step of the drug discovery process

Q6. With a quick sketch illustrate the proportion of modern pharmaceuticals
that come from natural or synthetic routes.

Q8 We often use a natural product as a basis from a pharmaceutical therapy,
why is this? Give one illustration of a natural compound that has been
modified to give a therapeutic (and why it was modified)

 

1. G-protein coupled receptors depend on 2ndmessengers to elicit their effects
on cell function. Name 3 of these messengers and explain their role in this process. [3 marks]
10. Describe briefly why we use drugs that affect brain 5-HT levels or 5-HT
receptors to treat major brain disorders. [3 marks]
Answer: Because there are various behavioral and physiological functions associated with 5-HT pathways which include hallucinations, mood, feeding behavior, as well as, sleep.
Did you find this answer from lecture note? It seems not answing the question. Can you please re-do it? Cheers

12. Using brief notes compare and contrast the mechanisms of resistance to
anticancer drugs and antiviral drugs. [3 marks]

13. Compare and contrast the use of complementary therapies by asthmatics
and people with depression. [3 marks]
Answer: Both adults and children suffering from depression or asthma use complementary therapies. Herbal products are used in both cases. The percent of children with Asthma who use complementary therapies is higher when compared with their counterparts who use complementary therapies. In addition, vitamin C is used by both patients.
Same problem to question 10, did you find out from my lecture notes? Can you please re- do? Thanks
3. Some anti-viral drugs and some anti-cancer drugs share a common
mechanism. Explain what this mechanism is, why it is important to both viral
and cancer chemotherapy and give one example of such a therapy. If possible,
also name a drug that has been used as both anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. [10marks]

 

4. Aspirin is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAID) for many different pain conditions as well as fever. Aspirin can also
cause duodenal or gastric ulcer, platelet disorders and renal function
impairment. Explain why these side effects occur and suggest an alternative
NSAID with reduced side effects. [10marks]

5. With a simple illustration, draw the autonomic innervation which projects to the
adrenal medulla and heart. Include relevant transmitters and receptors in your answer.
[6 marks]
10. Compare and contrast the use of complementary therapies by pregnant women
and healthy people. [3 marks]
Answer: Majority of people who uses complementary therapies are women who have at least tertiary education…whether healthy or pregnant. However, pregnant women choose complementary therapies for pregnant related reasons while healthy individuals choose complementary therapies for health reasons. Majority of people who use complementary therapies does so without knowledge of their GP or specialist.

Same problem, did you find out from my lecture notes? Can you please re- do? Thanks

12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are used for many different pain
Conditions, as well as, fever. Some of these drugs cause platelet disorders and
gastric ulcer. Explain why these side effects occur. [3 marks]

 

3. Describe the pharmacodynamic effects of amphetamines, their mechanisms of
action, and explain how this relates to their chemical structure. [10marks]
Answer: Aphetamine is either heated and smoked, injected, snorted or taken orally. It increases confidence, increases vigilance, leads to loss of appetite and increased energy. Long term use of amphetamine can lead to severe dental problems, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, violent behavior, extreme weight loss, as well as, mood disturbances.

Missed out of their mechanisms of action, and explain how this relates to their chemical structure

4. Describe why drug effects within the central nervous system are far more complex
than on the autonomic nervous system by focussing on antidepressant and
antipsychotic drugs. Explain mechanisms of action and main side effects of these
drugs. [10marks]

5. Compare and contrast rational drug design and combinatorial chemistry as
methods of drug discovery. [10marks]

6. Production of gastric acid is finely regulated both by neurons and by hormones.
Describe effects of drugs that act as an agonist at histamine (H2) and muscarinic
(M1) receptors on gastric acid production. Can these drugs be used to treat
duodenal or gastric ulcers? Explain your answer. [10marks]
2010
5. Describe the dynamics of acetylcholine production, storage, release and
inactivation at the synapse. Use a diagram to assist your answer if you wish.
Also, name one type of drug that can prevent acetylcholine mediating its
effect there. [3 marks]

2. What major therapeutic challenge is common to both anti-bacterial and anti-viral
therapy? [10marks]
Answer: Both are faced with the problem of the emergence of anti-bacterial and anti-viral resistances. In particular, anti-viral therapy has not been effective over the last few years due to emergence of anti-viral drug resistance. In addition, high costs associated with some antiviral therapies coupled with lack of effectiveness in treating diseases have made researchers to search and effective antiviral compounds. On the other hand, some anti-bacterial drugs are expensive, less effective and unreliable. The emergence of antibacterial drug resistance has not helped the matter.

Please only talk about their common therapeutic challenge. Noted this is a 10 marks question thank you

3. A pharmaceutical company has developed a new drug “Whimsolidine”. Following in
vitro and in vivo experiments they have the following information about the drug’s
action:
(i) organ bath: drug at low concentrations causes a significant contraction response.
(ii) autoradiography: drug binds to receptors in the brain, stomach, liver, and kidney.
(iii) dosing in rats: drug response following oral administration was observed on day 1
but diminished on day 2-5 of dosing and most of the drug was excreted in the urine as
metabolites.
(iv) dosing in rats with liver disease: drug accumulated in the plasma causing severe
toxicity after heightened response.

Referring to the above information, discuss the pharmacological properties of the drug
including: type of drug (agonist/antagonist), site of action, pharmacokinetics
(absorption and clearance organ), changes in dosing required with continued
administration, and patient groups who should not take the drug due to toxicity. [10marks]

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