There are three Sections in this paper: Section A – Understanding the Individual Section B – Investigating Behaviour Section C – The Individual in the Social Context Sections A and C are each worth 40 marks. Section B is worth 20 marks. Candidates should answer: • • • Two questions from Section A All questions from Section B Two questions from Section C
The breakdown of knowledge and understanding (ku) and analysis and evaluation (ae) marks is indicated beside each question.
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SECTION A UNDERSTANDING THE INDIVIDUAL Answer TWO questions from A1, A2 or A3. Answer ALL parts of your chosen questions. A1. Early Socialisation
Marks ku ae
(a) Describe and evaluate Bowlby’s contribution to our understanding of attachment. You should refer to research evidence in your answer. 8 4 (b) Describe and evaluate the effects of day care on the cognitive development of young children. 4 4 (20) A2. Memory (a) Describe and evaluate one model of memory. You should refer to research evidence in your answer. 8 4 4 4 (20) A3. Stress (a) Explain the long-term effects of stress on physical and mental health. You 8 4 should refer to research evidence in your answer. 4 4 (20) (40)
(b) Describe and evaluate one theory of forgetting.
(b) Describe and evaluate one strategy which may be used in stress management.
[END OF SECTION A]
SECTION B INVESTIGATING BEHAVIOUR Answer ALL questions in this Section.
Marks ku ae
A psychologist was interested in whether drinking water might have any effect on children’s cognitive abilities. She approached the head teacher of a local primary school and was given permission to conduct an experiment on the two Primary Seven classes which she labelled Class A and Class B. There were 30 pupils in each class. She devised a memory test suitable for that age group. Class A pupils received no bottled water. For a week before the test, each pupil in Class B was provided with a half-litre bottle of water every day. At the end of the week, pupils in both classes sat the memory test. After the test, the psychologist calculated the mean memory test scores for each class, out of a total score of 100. The results are shown in the table below. Class Without water–Class A With water–Class B Mean score 65 86
(a) State the independent and dependent variables in this study. (b) Which class was the “control group” in this study?
2 0 1 0 0 2 2 0
(c) Explain one possible extraneous or confounding variable in this study. (d) Suggest a suitable experimental hypothesis for this study.
(e) This study was a field experiment. Give one strength and one weakness of a 0 4 field experiment. (f) Describe how the mean and the mode would be calculated on this data. (g) Name and describe a suitable graph for presenting this data. (h) Explain one ethical concern when using children in research. 4 0 3 0 0 2 (20)
[END OF SECTION B] [X263/12/01] Page four
[Turn over for Section C on Page six
SECTION C THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL CONTEXT Answer ONE question from Social Psychology and ONE question from Psychology of Individual Differences. Social Psychology Answer ONE question from C1, C2 or C3. C1. Prejudice With reference to research, describe and evaluate the nature of prejudice. In your answer you may wish to include: OR C2. Social relationships Describe and evaluate two theories of social relationships with reference to research evidence. In your answer you may wish to include: OR C3. Conformity and Obedience Explain the factors affecting conformity and obedience, referring to research evidence in your answer. In your answer you may wish to include: • • • • a definition of both conformity and obedience; a description of factors affecting conformity and obedience; evaluation of research evidence; any other relevant points. • • • • a definition of social relationships; an explanation of the two theories; an evaluation of these theories; any other relevant points. • • • • a definition of prejudice; cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of prejudice; evaluation of research evidence; any other relevant points.
Marks ku ae
12 8 (20)
12 8 (20)
12 8 (20)
SECTION C (continued) Psychology of Individual Differences Answer ONE question from C4 or C5. C4. Atypical Behaviour Describe and evaluate definitions of atypical behaviour. In your answer you may wish to include: OR C5. Intelligence Explain the effects of early deprivation and environmental enrichment on intelligence. Refer to research evidence in your answer. In your answer you may wish to include: • • • • a definition of intelligence; a description of early deprivation and environmental enrichment; evaluation of the effects; any other relevant points. • • • • definitions of atypical behaviour; evaluation of the definitions; research evidence relating to these definitions; any other relevant points.