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macroskills of listening

Justify applying ofa selected principle or principles of effective teaching and learning to each ofthe four macroskills of listening and
speaking, reading and writing.
Due to the importance of using the four macro skills listening, speaking, reading and writing in teaching and learning students, the teacher has to focus on these skills and prepare in advance the lesson plans for each skill. Also, choose an appropriate principle or principles that match with these macro skills achieve the teaching goals. This essay will discuss these four macros
kill and the principles that will use in teaching them. In listening skill, the focus will be on sufficient and authentic input. Build students’ self-confidence will the principle in teaching speaking. ln teaching reading, students will encourage being strategic through
learning them to skim and scan the reading text. Helping students to write in a good and accepted way and be familiarwith writing process
will be one ofthe principles to teach writing.
Listening is the first skill that people acquire. It is an active process during it the
listeners make a link between what they hear and what they already know (schema) in orderto understand what they hear easily. According
to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. Rost, 2002 cited in Vandergrift,
(2002) defines listening, in its broadest sense, “as a process of receiving what the speaker actually says (receptive orientation);
constructing and representing meaning (constructive orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding (collaborative
orientation); and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy (transformative orientation)”. This process involves from
the listenerto do more than one strategies to understand the meaning such as the focus on the speaker accent, vocabulary, pronunciation and
grammar. Listening is an important skill because people through it can understand the information, the world, human affairs, and what have
to do in certain situations.
People do listening according to do something specific they need some information about it to do. During
listening, people do both bottom- up processing (linguistic knowledge) ortop- down processing (prior knowledge).These are the two processes
for listening. They are fundamental and they are happening at the same time in natural listening. According to Nunan (1999,200),”the
Bottom – up processing model assumes that listening is a process of decoding the sounds that one hears in a linearfashion, from the
smallest meaningful units (or phonemes) to complete texts. Whereas, top-down processing refers to that “the listener in actively
constructing meaning based on expectations, inferences, intentions, and other relevant prior knowledge”. (Richard 8. Renandya, 2002, p.
235).
Listening is significant in developing language comprehension. ln teaching a language input is an essential skill that learners need
to acquire any language. Krashen (1985) argues that people acquire language by understanding the linguistic information they hear.