Part I – Explaining Your Choice – 5 points each
For each of the following questions, state which letter best answers or completes the question and give a brief explanation (2-3 sentences) for why that is the best choice. There is generally only one good answer per question, but sometimes there may be more than one, depending on how well you can justify your answer. NO CREDIT for answers without explanations, and the explanation must logically justify your choice.
1. All of the following statements about Jacksonian America are true EXCEPT: a. Almost all adult white males could vote and held equal status before the law. b. Because political leaders had to appeal to so many people, campaigns became calmer and more focused on specific policy issues. c. In terms of wealth and access to resources, the U.S. was becoming less equal. d. Jackson presented himself as a spokesman for the “common man.” e. Slavery continued to expand into new lands.
2. In the early nineteenth century, the idea of “separate spheres”: a. Argued that women could serve in the military, but not in combat roles. b. Held that women’s proper sphere was the home. c. Was opposed by religious revivalists. d. Held that the U.S. should remain uninvolved in international events, especially in Europe. e. Granted men complete freedom from gender expectations.
3. Common to almost all early nineteenth century reform movements was: a. Their unified and focused goals and strategies. b. A desire to withdraw from a corrupt society and create utopian communities. c. A desire for liberation combined with a desire for social control. d. A practical mindset that accepted human imperfection. e. An acceptance of sinful behavior as unavoidable.
4. What was the MOST coomon idea of the abolitionist movement to abolish slavery? a. It was a necessary evil, but one which still needs to be eliminated. b. It was an economic drain on the country, so it stood in the way of profits. c. It was in sharp contradiction to the ideals stated in the Constitution. d. It was a sin against God. e. It was just as bad as the inequality between men and women.
5. All of the following were characteristics of the economic changes that swept most of America in the early nineteenth century EXCEPT: a. Farming spread quickly into new territories. b. Economic activity became more specialized. c. Local economies became more tied to regional and national markets. d. The social structure became more stratified. e. Economic considerations discouraged migration.
6. Slavery shaped the lives of African Americans in all of the following ways EXCEPT: a. It inspired slaves occasionally to plan armed revolts. b. It made it difficult to maintain family ties among slaves who were related to each other. c. It destroyed all African cultural roots. d. It influenced African American religious practices. e. It demanded monotonous and exhausting labor from slaves.
7. Manifest Destiny was based on all of the following ideas EXCEPT: a. White superiority justified American expansion into new territory. b. Conquest of new lands would prove American military might to the world. c. New lands extended the reach of good government and free enterprise. d. America had a special ordained mission in the world. e. America was naturally an expanding country.
8. The Mexican War began when: a. The U.S. annexed Texas. b. Mexico expelled an American diplomat. c. The U.S. Army invaded Mexico at Veracruz. d. Mexico launched a sneak attack against the Alamo. e. American and Mexican forces clashed over a disputed border territory.
9. At the beginning of the Civil War, which one of the following factors favored the Confederacy? a. The extensive Southern transportation system. b. The size of the labor pool compared to the North. c. The fact that the fighting would be in familiar territory, in self-defense. d. The potential for creating an industrial base to supply the war effort. e. Strong pro-Confederate unity across the entire South.
10. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation declared slaves to be free: a. Everywhere in the United States, North and South. b. In the border states and all western territories. c. In the areas of the South under Confederate control. d. In the areas of the South under Union control. e. Only when slave owners were paid compensation.
Short Answer Identification – 5 points each Identify (who, what, where, when) and give the historical significance for FOUR of the following eight terms. For the historical significance, you may need to use your own judgment, but try to connect the term with larger historical issues. For example, if it is a person, explain what this person is an example of, or what effect the person’s actions had on historical events, or why it would be important to know who this person was in order to understand history. The complete answer should be a brief paragraph, about 5-6 dense sentences worth.