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Republic: 3 branches of gov limited power tyranny in gov distrusted democracy. –separation of powers
Democracy was enforced in the late 1960s
Progressive movement:
1: 1900-1920-corporation dominated congress-the political parties.
2: put pressure on the states to institute.
3: 23 states
Initiative-when the public designs and passes legislation
Referendum-does away with an old law
Recall-remove gov from power
Direct primary-
History of the franchise
1: founding of our country 1791-1850, white property holders.
2: white to vote.
3: 15th amendment, 1870, African American males acquire the right to vote.
4: 1920, 19th amendment, women.
5: 1971, 26th amendment to 18 year olds.
African Americans were still denied the right to vote in the south.
-registration was denied to African American.
-intimidation at the polls
-poll taxes, 1966, American voters had to pay a fee to vote.
-literacy test, 1965, had to pass a test.
-white primary, disallowed from voting in the primaries.
Voting qualifications are established by the states. National gov can intervene when discrimination is an issue. Supreme court repealed section of the voting rights act. Now the southern have regained the right to come up a new set of voting.
1: Voting right- as a form of participation is the most important one;
2: using the right- vote rates
Voting trends
1: presidential elections-voting was slightly higher 1950’s, 1960’s, dip in the 1970’s+1980’s
Reasons for low voting rates:
1: alienation (don’t feel part of system);
2: late habit (at age 25)
3: annual elections (frequency of elections)
4: total number of elected officials, initiative issues.
5: decline in political party influences.